How to Tag Footnotes and Endnotes in a PDF?

How to Tag Footnotes and Endnotes in a PDF
Footnotes and endnotes are essential components of document formatting, serving distinct roles. Comprising two parts—the note reference mark and the note text—they provide additional information, explanations, comments, or references related to the content being referenced.
Footnotes, typically used for detailed commentary or supplementary information directly relevant to the text, are placed at the bottom of the page where the reference mark appears. This placement allows readers to access the additional information seamlessly without disrupting the flow of the main text. Footnotes are particularly valuable for offering explanations, elaborations, or examples that enhance the reader’s comprehension of the material.
In contrast, endnotes primarily serve as citations for sources referenced in the document. They are commonly utilized in academic writing, research papers, and scholarly publications to acknowledge sources and provide bibliographic details. Endnotes are positioned at the end of the document, either on a separate page or section, by formatting guidelines.
The choice between footnotes and endnotes often depends on the preferred or required citation style for a particular publication. Certain academic disciplines or publishing houses may have specific guidelines regarding their usage.
In cases where footnotes or endnotes contain brief content, such as a single word or phrase, it is important to ensure their visibility to the reader. This can be achieved through formatting techniques such as font size adjustments, superscript or subscript placement, or the use of symbols like asterisks or daggers.
Moreover, when footnotes or endnotes contain short but essential information that should not be overlooked, it may be beneficial to tag or highlight them within the text to emphasize their significance. This ensures that readers do not miss important details while navigating the document.

This article guides tagging of references and footnotes in two separate methods using PDF tagging software PREP. Before that, learn what are Tag types and reading order in the below video.

Method 1: Tagging Reference and Footnotes in PREP

Step 1: Create a Reference Tag: Switch to Draw Mode to create a box and place it on the reference that needs tagging.

Create a Reference Tag

Step 2: Change Tag Type to Reference: Using the keyboard shortcut “Q” or the dropdown menu, change the tag type of the box to a reference tag.

Change Tag Type to Reference

Step 3: Select and Group Tags: Group them together by using the keyboard shortcut Shift + X or simple drag the reference tag and place it on the paragraph tag.

Select and Group Tags

Step 4: Identify and Tag Footnotes: To begin tagging footnotes, first, identify the relevant footnote within the text and change the tag of the footnote by pressing the keyboard shortcut “Z” or using the dropdown menu.

Identify and Tag Footnotes

Step 5: Return to Draw Mode and Create a New Box and Change Tag Type to Label: Draw a new box around the footnote number. Adjust the tag type of the newly created box to a Label tag. Place it over the footnote.

Return to Draw Mode and Create a New Box and Change Tag Type to Label

Step 6: Select both boxes and Group them together: Select both the Label and Footnote boxes. Group them together under “note” by using the keyboard shortcut Shift + Z or drag and drop.

Step 7: Arrange Tags: Finally, place the grouped footnote tag under the reference tag, which is under the Paragraph (P) tag.

Arrange Tags

Method 2: Tagging Reference and Footnotes in PREP Using Draw Mode

Step 1: Switch to Draw Mode: Create a box and place it around the reference tag.

Switch to Draw Mode

Step 2: Change Tag Type to Link: Using the keyboard shortcut “N” or using the dropdown menu, change the tag type of the box to a Link tag.

Change Tag Type to Link

Step 3: Extract Link: Open the “Link URL req” button located in the top right corner and enter the page number of the associated footnote. Save the link and proceed.

Extract Link

Step 4: Select and Group Tags: Group them together under the Paragraph (P) tag using the keyboard shortcut Shift + X.

Select and Group Tags

Step 5: Group Under Reference: Select the Link tag and then group it under the Reference tag using the keyboard shortcut Shift + E.

Group Under Reference

Step 6: Identify and Tag Footnotes: Begin by identifying the footnote within the text that needs tagging. Change the tag of the identified footnote to a Footnote tag using the keyboard shortcut “Z” or using the dropdown menu.

Identify and Tag Footnotes

Step 7: Create a New Box and Change Tag Type to Label: Switch back to Draw Mode within the interface. Draw a new box around the footnote. Adjust the tag type of the box to a Label tag. Place it over the footnote number.

Create a New Box and Change Tag Type to Label

Step 8: Select the boxes and Group them under Note: Select both the Label and Footnote boxes. Group them together under “note” using the keyboard shortcut Shift + Z.

Select the boxes and Group them under Note

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Editors:

Debangku Sarma

Digital Marketing Associate
Continual Engine

Vijayshree Vethantham

Senior Vice-President, Growth & Strategy
Continual Engine US LLC

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